Posted 2017-03-12 23:00:00 GMT
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The Kotlin programming language has all the features of Java, and supports all sorts of helpful things like extension functions, stackless inlines and named parameters. If you're starting a new project for the JVM, shouldn't you just use Kotlin?
In 2010, I asked the same question about Scala — the answer was no. Scala aims for a target that is not at all the practical minimalist Java. Instead, it's a hodgepodge of half-implemented ideas from C++ and Haskell. Astonishingly, a basic for loop in Scala is translated into a bytecode litterbug that spews garbage every iteration. Kotlin, on the other hand, keeps it clean and even makes it easy to invent new efficient iteration styles with guaranteed stackless inlining of lambdas (when annotated).
The features of Kotlin improve the life of a Java programmer. The language doesn't indulge in whimsical flights of fancy, like attempting to redefine what nullness is by inventing an Option datatype. The JVM has an efficient representation for a missing value: null. The only problem is that the Java language designers decided to crash the program by throwing a NullPointerException as the default response to this common condition. Objective C is much more sensible and just ignores operations on the nil object (though it does crash on NULL). Kotlin introduces syntax to keep track of what can be null, offers Objective C like behaviour with the ?. operator and provides :? to turn null into a default value — the Elvis operator. All in all, an elegant series of responses to the billion dollar mistake.
There are areas where Kotlin violates the Java principle that everything should be explicit: the most significant is extension methods, i.e. syntactic sugar to allow extra methods for other people's classes, and second with var (and val) to declare variables without repeating their type — like C++'s auto, Go's var, etc. Both features have been used successfully in C# for many years. In terms of understanding a program, these violations are less severe than defaulting all functions to be virtual — which Java started with — allowing child classes to confusingly modify their parent's intentions.
The Android Kotlin extension methods remove so much boilerplate and avoid the kind of nasty surprise that Scala introduces (the Kotlin runtime is under a megabyte). In the end, they make the intention of the programmer much clearer by skipping the ceremony imposed by badly designed APIs.
Java is deliberately not programmer-orientated. That's the point of using it — it was designed to restrict the kind of trouble programmers can get themselves into. If you're stuck with the JVM — and as more than 80% of smartphones run Android, we all are — the extra help that Kotlin affords in terms of null-checking and syntactic sugar actually make programs clearer and safer. The complicated excesses and action at a distance of C++ or Ruby are avoided. Admittedly, you can't write programs so succinctly as Ruby or with anything close to C++'s performance, but the bar we are evaluating is Java. Is Kotlin a better Java?
Yes. Yes, you should use Kotlin despite it being new, and despite the consequent teething problems (an example, promptly bug-fixed). The pace of improvement, incredible integration with IntelliJ (Android Studio) and great pragmatic design make it a winner: Kotlin swiftly (pun intended) to the rescue!
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